defined the 5 terms bellow by the instruction Reliable Assignment Help

  

Question Description

    ch16.11..ppt

  1. Enterprise
    Integration

  2. Integration
    Challenges

  3. System
    Architecture

  4. Legacy
    Systems

  5. API

– Provide a formal definition with a Source / Reference for
each term

– Simplistically define in layman terms in order for the term or
theory/Concept that demonstrates you understand as it relates to the
powepoint 

and here the example of how u do it..

Emergent Properties – Emergent Properties are considered a unique property
that comes from components joining together to produce a higher-level aggregate
system.

“Emergent Property.” Dictionary.com. Accessed 9/1/2015.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/emergent+property

Layman term: Emergent properties are properties of an entire system that
could not otherwise be achieved without each individual component.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter 16
Enterprise Technology
Ronald E. Giachetti, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering, FIU
May 7, 2019
Florida International University
1
Overview
▪ Describe why enterprise integration is
important
▪ List the challenges to enterprise integration
▪ Define and describe the five types of
enterprise integration
▪ Compare and contrast the main
approaches to system architecture
▪ Describe the integration technologies
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 2
Enterprise Integration
Enterprise Integration makes the operation of the
enterprise seem as if it is a single entity working towards
achieving a known goal.
▪ Improve quality and timeliness of
information
▪ Provide information on demand, where it
is needed, regardless of source system
▪ Coordination decisions among
organizational units
▪ Synchronize business actions
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 3
Organization and System Heterogeneity
Engineering
Manufacturing
Accting,
Finance
and Mgmt.
Marketing
& Sales
Laptop
Unix
Workstations
Mainframe
AS/400
Windows NT
Servers
stovepipes
4
Enterprise Chaos
Data
Packaged
application
Client/Server
Application
a
h dat
Batc d
loa
Oracle
D
re ata
pl ba
ica s
tio e
n
Data
ta
da t
h
tc rac
Ba ext
Batch
da
extra ta
ct
application
Data
E-commerce
applications
Ba
t
ex ch d
t ra a
ct ta
Field
Applications
DB2
application
Legacy
Applications
5
Benefits of Integration
decreasing delivery time (30-60%)
product design time (20-50%)
product design cost (15-30%)
space (25-40%)
inventory cost of raw materials (3060%)
▪ direct manpower costs (20-35%)
▪ indirect manpower costs (30-35%)





National Research Council, Impact of integration efforts at McDonnell
Aircraft Co., Deere and Co, Westinghouse Defense and Electronic
Center, General Motors, and Ingersoll Milling Machine Co, Special 6
Report to NASA, Washington, DC 1986
Process Integration Challenges
Challenge
• Processes are not
viewed as end-to-end
business processes
serving a customer.
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Ramifications
▪ Excessive process waiting time.
▪ Low resource efficiency.
▪ Excessive need for information
exchange and coordination.
▪ Frequent need for expediting orders
because the process’s coordination
and information flow is not well
designed.
▪ Quality problems because the
process is not designed to mistakeproof the activities and because
proper statistical quality control and
other performance improvement is
not in place.
Slide 7
Information Integration Challenges
Challenge
• The data are located
in many different
locations
• Data representation
is inconsistent
• Different platforms
are used
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Ramifications
▪ The paradox that data are
everywhere, yet it is not readily
accessible or easy to use.
▪ Data are controlled by many
different organizational units without
consistent policies for access,
updating, security, etc.
▪ It is expensive to develop, maintain,
and change information systems,
leading to slow deployment of new
systems.
Slide 8
Organization Integration Challenges
Challenge
• the decisions and
actions of organizational
units are not coordinated
• the goals are not
aligned
• units may actually
make decisions that are
detrimental from an
enterprise perspective.
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Ramifications
▪ Uncoordinated decisions made by
different organizational units.
▪ A functional viewpoint of one’s
own organizational unit and its
work, instead of a horizontal view of
the process serving an endcustomer.
▪ Reward systems that are not
aligned with the organization’s
goals.
Slide 9
Integration Challenges
▪ Technical Challenges
Stand-alone designs common to legacy systems
Internalized data models that were not meant to be shared with
other applications
Lack of system interfaces to access data
Heterogeneous technologies for platforms, networks,
applications, programming languages, and databases
Multiple standards
Multiple distribution paradigms such as CORBA, COM, and EJB
Proprietary systems
Semantic differences in the interpretation of data
Security that limits access to data and/or systems
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 10
Integration Challenges
▪ Management Challenges
Working across cultures, companies, or other
organizational boundaries
Overcoming the differences associated with cultures,
companies, and disciplines
Collaborating and competing with other organizations
depending on the market
Multiple stakeholders
Maintaining autonomy
Data ownership
Protection of intellectual property
Lack of sufficient expertise for integration
Loss of control when integrating systems or sharing data
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 11
$$
Process Integration
$
Order Entry
Payment
Seamless, coordinated
flow of material and
information
Suppliers
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Shipping
Delivery
Warehouse
Receiving
Inventory
Slide 12
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 13
System Architecture
Data
Data
Data
FDDI Ring
Mainframe
Bridge
Server
Plotter
Server
▪ The system architecture
describes how the
information technology
components are
organized into an overall
system.
Ethernet
Printer
Firewall
▪ The system architecture is
one component of the
enterprise architecture.
wireless
Laptops
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 14
Client Server Computing
▪ Client request service from server
Synchronous or asynchronous communications
Synchronous
Asynchronous
Cell Phone
Client
Desktop
Client
Request
Wait for reply
Request
No wait
do other
tasks
Reply
Reply
Request in
queue until
server ready
Database
Server
File
Server
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 15
Types of Servers
▪ A software that provides a service
Data
Server
Email
Server
File
Server
Web
Server
Print
Server
Application
Server
▪ Server type named by service
provided
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 16
Legacy Systems
▪ A legacy system is a software application that was designed
to provide certain business functionality independently of
other applications.
▪ Monolithic, mainframe computer-based applications with the
data and application logic tightly coupled, and their own
interface for accessing the applications functions and data.
All the processing and data storage was done by the legacy
application,
▪ A typical thin-client was a CRT terminal, frequently offering the
single screen color of green, with a keyboard and no CPU
(central processing unit).
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 17
Distributed Systems
▪ Abstract out the details of distributed communications and
make it the responsibility of the infrastructure, not the system
designer.
▪ Location transparency – client does not need to know the true
location of a given application. Treat remote applications as
if they are local.
▪ Multi-platform – support different hardware and operating
systems.
▪ Quality of Service – need to define QoS for message delivery
and guarantee message delivery.
▪ Track Requests & Notification – where is message?
▪ Naming Service – service names and queues stored by
middleware solution.
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 18
Layered System Architecture
▪ Layers facilitate understanding
▪ Provide loose coupling
Data Layer
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Presentation Layer
Network
Data
Computer
Database
Mgmt System
(Oracle)
Application
Server
(Cold Fusion)
Web
Server
(Apache)
▪ Layered architecture is scalable
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 19
Distributed Architecture
▪ A distributed system architecture is one in
which the system components are physically
distributed to multiple locations that are
connected by network technology.
Presentation
Layer
Presentation
Layer
Laptop
Data
Layer
Data
Internet
Web
Server
User
Application
Layer
Application
Server
PDA or
Cell Phone
Three-tier architecture
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 20
Communication in Distributed Architecture
Presentation
Layer
Application
Layer
Data
Layer
2
3
1
Data
Network
Application
Server
Laptop
User
7
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
4
5
User enter request for service
Transport over network to application server
Data request to data layer
Return data requested
Do application processing
Return application results to laptop
Display to user
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 21
ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION
FRAMEWORK
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 22
Enterprise Integration Levels
ENTERPRISE
LEVELS
INTEGRATION
TYPES
Organization
Alignment
Process
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Coordination
Application
Interoperability
Information
Data sharing
Infrastructure
Connectivity
ENTERPRISE
INTEGRATION
Slide 23
API
▪ An application programming interface (API) is a set
of procedures that allow external applications to
connect to an application and obtain data or
services
▪ API’s are used to integrate systems
Example API specification
An application does currency conversion. Other
applications (e.g., a travel website) can use the service via
the API GetLatestRate
GetLatestRate(FromCurrency, ToCurrency);
Example use:
GetLatestRate(USD, EUR):
Then the API returns
1.2754, USD, EUR, 10:05:00 EST, June 13, 2009
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 24
Standardization
▪ A standard is a formal specification to establish the
technical requirements for the operation of a
system.
▪ A protocol is a standard for data representation,
data transmission, authentication, and error
detection for sending and receiving information
over a communications channel.
▪ Standards can be coercive (e.g., Euro conversion),
collaborative (e.g., HTML, CORBA, STEP), or de facto
(e.g., MS Windows).
▪ Standards important at lower levels (network, data,
and application).
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 25
Enterprise Integration Levels
ENTERPRISE
LEVELS
INTEGRATION
TYPES
Organization
Alignment
Process
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Coordination
Application
Interoperability
Information
Data sharing
Infrastructure
Connectivity
ENTERPRISE
INTEGRATION
Slide 26
Illustrative Problem: Int’l Space Station
analysis
PDM
Oxygen
Sensor
Relational
engineering
procurement
safety
CAD
Finite Element
Analysis
O2 Sensor
Nonrelational
….
.
Data
27
Data Integration Technologies
▪ Focus on integrating enterprise via data
▪ Either move data between applications or
share data with single, shared database
Point-to-point integration (ETL)
Single, centralized, shared database
Federated database
Data warehouse
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 28
Extract Transform and Load (ETL)
▪ Moving data from system A to system B
EXTRACT
Data
A
Ronald, Edward,
Giachetti,
5/15/64
Transformation
R.E. Giachetti,
May 15, 1964
TRANSFORM
LOAD
Data
B
▪ Often requires ‘transformation’ of data due
to format or other requirements
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 29
Data Middleware
▪ Instead of defining a transformation specific
to each point-to-point connection, make a
data middleware to handle all
transformations
▪ ODBC = Open Database Connectivity, an
API for database
▪ Database gateways are API’s to many
different databases
Take SQL and translate to specific database
format and translate the results back for the
client
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 30
Centralized Database
▪ If everybody uses the same data, then there is no
data integration issues – sometimes (often) not
possible
▪ A federated database is a collection of
heterogeneous, component databases over which
a global view of the data is created so that the
separate databases can be treated as if they were
a single database
Global View
Data
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Data
Data
Slide 31
Data Warehouse
▪ Used for OLAP
Query & Reports
Only
Operational
Databases
Engineering
Users
Marketing
Users
Data
Data
Data
Warehouse
Data
ETL
Accounting
Users
Sales
Users
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 32
Enterprise Integration Levels
ENTERPRISE
LEVELS
INTEGRATION
TYPES
Organization
Alignment
Process
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Coordination
Application
Interoperability
Information
Data sharing
Infrastructure
Connectivity
ENTERPRISE
INTEGRATION
Slide 33
Distributed Object Environment
Message2
Order
iMac
Message1
Credit
IBM Compatible
Warehouse
Server
System at Software Level
Messages are calling objects that are remote.
CORBA can be deployed cross-platform. DCOM is Windows only.
RPC and ORB
▪ Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and Object Request
Broker (ORB) are two related middleware
technologies for integrating applications
▪ RPC is an earlier technology that is point-to-point
and requires a direct, synchronous connection
▪ ORB allows communication between applications
that are both platform and programming language
independent
▪ ORB manages the sending and receiving of
method invocations across the network.
▪ CORBA, DCOM, and Enterprise Java Beans
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 35
RPC
client
server
Stub
skeleton
1.
2. Stub converts
parameters into a
string of bits
(marshalling) to send
over network.
IDL creates Stub
and Skeleton.
Interface definition
language (IDL)
Call Foo (int X, string Y, pointer Z)
return float
3. Skeleton converts the
string of bits into its
parameters
(unmarshalling) and
invokes function.
Function Foo (int X, string Y, pointer
Z) return float
01001101011001010010
36
Middleware
Application
Application
Application Programming Interface (API)
Middleware or distributed system services
Platform Interface
Platform Interface
Platform Operating
System
Platform Operating
System
37
CORBA
▪ Common Object Request Broker Architecture
proposed by the Object Management Group
(OMG) is not proprietary so vendors can add value
to it.
▪ Platform and language independence.
Interoperability between language mapping – C, C++, COBOL,
ADA, Java, etc.
▪ Request/Response (Object Server) mechanism
that works in a distributed environment.
Direct exchanges. It generalizes the remote procedure call
(RPC) mechanism for independent programs, which may reside
on different platforms.
▪ Each system offers a set of services to other client
subsystems.
▪ Each system provides a stub to communicate wit
the ORB.
▪ Interface Definition Language (IDL) to define
interfaces in language neutral manner.
38
IDL
▪ A separate language that defines the
interface independently from the rest of the
programming.
▪ Used by CORBA
interface Simple
{
//Convert a string to lower case (return a newstring)
string to_lower(in string val);
//Convert a string to upper case (in place)
void to_upper(inout string val);
};
39
Message Queueing
▪ Common form of asynchronous communication
Account A
Message
Sent
Message
Reply
Account B
outgoing
queue
outgoing
queue
incoming
queue
incoming
queue
▪ Outgoing and incoming queues
▪ Messages sent between queues
▪ Client is decoupled from server – no blocking due
to waiting for response
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 40
Message Queueing
Receiving &
sending
queue
2:
Cr
ed
4: it(Ac
Co ctN
mm um
it
)
Account B
interface
1: Debit(AcctNum)
3: Commit
Receiving &
sending
queue
Account A
41
ERP
▪ A software solution that addresses the enterprise needs by
taking a process view of an enterprise.
▪ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are large business
applications consisting of many modules designed to handle
all the transactions for pre-defined business processes
▪ Provides the foundation for a business organization to operate
as a single, integrated, and cohesive entity
▪ Facilitates the adoption and standardization of business
processes across the entire “enterprise”
▪ Real-time visibility of information with tight
modular integration so that all transactions
are visible, auditable, and accurate
▪ Meets the enterprise goals tightly
integrating all functions of an enterprise.
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 42
Integration Within and Between Modules
▪ The modules are integrated
▪ Designed based on business
processes
▪ Use best practices
Finance and
Accounting
Module
Finance and
Accounting
Module
financial aid
budgeting
Reporting
Module
Administration
reports
Shared
Database
Student
Module
Course registration
Grading
Course listing
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Asset
Management
Module
Property control
purchasing
Human
Resources
Module
Payroll
hiring
Integrated Process Flow in ERP
Contabilidad
Accounting Module
Student Module
Estudiante
Asset Management
Module
Biblioteca
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 44
Web Services
▪ Web Services are self-contained, self-describing,
modular applications that can be published,
located, and invoked across the Web.
▪ Create new services by aggregating/combining
other services available on the web.
▪ Web services provide a structured way to format
data, a way to handle transactions, and a
standard means to describe what the service
does and make the services available to others.
▪ Web services are based on the standard
protocols of XML, SOAP, and WSDL, which allow
them to interoperate across platforms and
programming languages.
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Web Service Architecture
List of
Services
Available
Web Service
Broker
Web Service
Provider
Web Service
Requestor
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Web Services
Unlike websites, which are pictures of data designed to be
viewed in a browser by a person, a Web service is
designed to be accessed directly by another service or
software application.
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Example Use of Web Services
▪ Amazon.Com has
developed a powerful
application for ecommerce.
▪ To expand their business
they have created
several API’s accessible
as web services for
external users to
leverage Amazon’s
web site.
Ronald E. Giachetti
May 7, 2019
Slide 48
Web Services Technologies
▪ There are a suite of technologies to
enable web services:
SOAP – protocol for exchange
WSDL – describes services
UDDI – registry to list available services
▪ All are based on XML and are
standards defined by OMG.
▪ Microsoft’s .Net is built around these
technologies.
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
SOAP





SOAP Short for Simple Object Access
Protocol. A simple, XML-based protocol
for exchanging structured data and
type information on the World Wide
Web.
SOAP enables systems to talk to one
another and make requests (the
grammar).
SOAP describes what is in the message,
who should deal with it and whether it is
optional or mandatory.
SOAP is currently the de facto standard
for XML messaging. It lets you invoke
methods on remote objects.
SOAP consists of four basic components:
Action Required
An envelope that defines a framework
Subject: Contact
for describing message structure.
A set of encoding rules for expressing
To: Accounting
instances of application-defined data
types
From: Support
A convention for representing remote
procedure calls and responses.
A set of rules for using SOAP with
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
SOAP
▪ SOAP is used to exchange information
between peers in a decentralized,
distributed environment.
▪ SOAP is fundamentally a stateless, one-way
message exchange paradigm, but
applications can create more complex
interaction patterns (e.g., request/response,
request/multiple responses, etc.) by
combining such one-way exchanges with
features provided by an underlying protocol
and/or application-specific information.
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
SOAP Applied
▪ Using SOAP typically means:
when sending messages, put them into a SOAP
envelope
when receiving messages, take them out of the
SOAP envelope
▪ An envelope is a wrapper containing:
a header – information to intermediaries (network
nodes on the message path)
a body – the actual contents (depending on the
application)
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Travel Reservation in SOAP
uuid:093a2da1-q345-739r-ba5d-pqff98fe8j7d
2001-11-29T13:20:00.000-05:00
Åke Jógvan Øyvind
New York
Los Angeles
2001-12-14
late afternoon
aisle
Los Angeles
New York
2001-12-20
mid-morning
none
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
SOAP Envelope
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
WSDL
▪ Web Service Description Language
(WSDL) describes what functions are
available from a specific web service
and what information must be passed
to call them.
XML Document
WSDL
Document
Pointer to
WSDL
document
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
WSDL
▪ WSDL defines an XML grammar for describing
network services as collections of communication
endpoints capable of exchanging messages.
▪ WSDL is an XML-based language that allows formal
descriptions of the interfaces of Web services:


which interactions does the service provide?
which arguments and results are involved in the
interactions?

which network addresses are used to locate the service?

which communication protocol should be used?

which data formats are the messages represented in?
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
UDDI
▪ Universal Description
Discovery and Integration
(UDDI) provides a directory
enabling business to list
services that they provide.
▪ XML based specification.
▪ Core component is
business registration
module:
White pages – denoting the
address, contact, and known
identifiers.
Yellow pages to categorize
services according to a std
taxonomy.
Green pages to denote
technical information (e.g.
WSDL).
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
UDDI
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
UDDI
▪ Universal Description
Discovery and Integration
(UDDI) provides a directory
enabling business to list
services that they provide.
▪ XML based specification.
▪ Core component is
business registration
module:
White pages – denoting the
address, contact, and known
identifiers.
Yellow pages to categorize
services according to a std
taxonomy.
Green pages to denote
technical information (e.g.
WSDL).
Ronald E. Giachetti © 2003
UDDI

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