# Discussion Thread: Chi-Square, Cross Tabulation, and Non-parametric Association

Respond to the following short answer questions in Chapter 7 from the Morgan, Leech, Gloeckner, & Barrett textbook:

D.5.7.1 In Output 7.1: (a) What do the terms “count” and “expected count” mean? (b) What does the difference between them tell you?

D.5.7.2 In Output 7.1: (a) Is the (Pearson) chi-square statistically significant? Explain what it means. (b) Are the expected values in at least 80% of the cells ≥ 5? How do you know? Why is this important?

D.5.7.3 in output D.5.7.2: (a) how is the risk ratio calculated? What does it tell you? (b) how is the odds ratio calculated and what does that tell you? (c) how could information about the odds ratio be useful to people wanting to know the practical importance of research results? (d) what are some of the limitations of the odds ratio as an effect size measure?

D.5.7.4 Because father’s and mother’s education revised are 3-level variables with at least ordinal data, which of the statistics used in Problem D.5.7.3 is the most appropriate to measure the strength of the relationship: phi, Cramer’s V, or Kendall’s tau-b? Interpret the results. Why are tau-b and Cramer’s V different?

D.5.7.5 In Output 7.4: (a) How do you know which is the appropriate value of eta? (b) Do you think it is high or low? Why? (c) How would you describe the results?